Résumé : The objective of this work is to provide new insights into the mechanisms taking place during the drying of the mature grains of Kampot pepper, a cultivar of pepper (Piper nigrum L.), which is produced in the Kampot Province, Cambodia. Indeed, even if the Kampot pepper is recognized for its organoleptic qualities, no research works were dedicated to the drying of its mature grains, in order to yield red pepper. Experiments with different pretreatment and drying conditions were performed. The results of these experiments were analyzed, regarding the drying kinetics, the color of the dry product, and the degradation of the bioactive compounds during the drying. Regarding these bioactive compounds, several parameters were considered: the total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content, and the piperine content. The results show that the Kampot mature pepper is prone to alterations when dried at a temperature of 55 ◦C or 65 ◦C: the color, the total phenolic content, and the flavonoid content are significantly altered, while the piperine content, important for the pungency of this spice, seems unaltered. Raising the temperature leads to more important degradations. However, performing a pretreatment by dipping the pepper grains into boiling water appears to significantly reduce these alterations and, concomitantly, to accelerate the drying. As a conclusion of the analysis of the results, it can be stated that, to increase the product quality, it is recommended to pretreat the pepper by dipping it into boiling water during 5 min., before drying at 55 ◦C.