Résumé : The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the potential role of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled autologous leukocytes in the diagnosis and localization of infectious lesions. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected or documented infection were prospectively evaluated with whole-body PET/CT 3 h after injection of autologous (18)F-FDG-labeled leukocytes. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of the clinical end-diagnosis reviewed all PET/CT studies. A visual score (0-3)-according to uptake intensity-was used to assess studies. The results of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cell ((18)F-FDG-WBC) assessment were compared with histologic or biologic diagnosis in 15 patients and with clinical end-diagnosis after complete clinical work-up in 6 patients. RESULTS: Nine patients had fever of unknown etiology, 6 patients had documented infection but with unknown extension of the infectious disease, 4 patients had a documented infection with unfavorable evolution, and 2 patients had a documented infection with known extension. The best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was obtained when a visual score of >or=2 was chosen to identify increased tracer uptake as infection. With this threshold, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were each 86% on a patient-per-patient basis and 91%, 85%, and 90% on a lesion-per-lesion basis. In this small group of patients, the absence of areas with increased WBC uptake on WBC PET/CT had a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Hybrid (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT was found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of infection. It located infectious lesions with a high precision. In this small series, absence of areas with increased uptake virtually ruled out the presence of infection. (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT for infection detection deserves further investigation in a larger prospective series.