Résumé : Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the selective autoimmune destruction of the islet β cells, and macrophages play a significant role in this process. Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) is an important posttranslational modification involved in T1D pathogenesis, but its function in macrophages remains unexplored. We presently developed and used macrophage-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (Ubc9) knockout (LyzM-Cre-Ubc9fl/fl, KO) mice to address the impact of SUMOylation on macrophage function in a T1D model. We observed that blocking Ubc9 in macrophages exacerbated multiple-low dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)-induced diabetes. Specifically, after STZ treatment, blood glucose levels were consistently elevated in the KO mice. The KO mice exhibited a higher diabetes incidence than WT controls (85% vs. 55%, P < 0.01) along with a higher insulitis severity. The loss of Ubc9 impaired macrophage energy metabolism and attenuated macrophage M2 program, thereby enhancing T cell activation. Pancreas-resident macrophages, rather than migrant macrophages, played a predominant role in MLD-STZ-induced diabetes. Mechanistically, Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation of interferon regulator factor 4 (IRF4) enhanced its nuclear localization and stability, thereby transcribing IL-4 and arginase 1 (Arg1) to promote the macrophage M2 program. Ubc9-mediated SUMOylation modulates T1D risk at least in part by regulating macrophage function. Modulation of disturbed SUMOylation process in macrophages, either through cell adoptive transfer or targeted drug-delivery, could help to establish a tolerant pancreatic microenvironment and promote inflammation resolution in early insulitis stage, thus hindering T1D progression.