Résumé : Background: More than 25% of bladder cancer (BC) cases are still muscle-invasive at first diagnosis. Screening is unproven to enable the detection of more non-muscle-invasive tumors. BC association with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) was reported after intake of slimming pills containing Chinese herbs. Objective: We evaluated whether a BC screening protocol in a high-risk and unique patient population had an impact on the stage of tumor presentation. Design, setting, and participants: Forty-eight AAN-affected patients were enrolled in a screening program, establishing BC incidence during prospective screening cystoscopies and biopsies biannually for up to 10 yr. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and three refused screening after consenting. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for presence of BC and tumor stage at diagnosis. Results and limitations: BC was diagnosed in 25 patients (52%). Among 43 patients who underwent screening cystoscopies (median follow-up: 94 mo), 22 were first diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC but none with muscle-invasive tumors and none died of BC. Three women who declined follow-up were diagnosed and died with advanced metastatic disease. The limitations of our findings include the small sample size of this case series, the absence of a real control group, and the particular risk factor in these patients that differs from the usual risk factors, such as smoking or industrial chemicals. Conclusions: BC screening in high-risk groups may allow identification of tumors before muscle invasion. The optimal screening schedule and the relevance of the present findings in smoking-related BC remain to be defined. © 2011 European Association of Urology.