Résumé : Hypoxic stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors has been reported to inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). This has been explained by a reflex vagal (Chapleau et al., 1988) or sympathetic (Naeije et al., 1989) pulmonary vasodilation. We therefore investigated the effects of bilateral cervical vagotomy and of muscarinic block (atropine sulfate 0.1 mg.kg-1 i.v.) on multipoint pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa)-cardiac index (Q) plots in 16 sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs ventilated alternately in hyperoxia (fraction of inspired O2, FIO2, 0.4) and in hypoxia (FIO2 0.1). Over the range of Q studied, 2 to 5 L.min-1.m-2, hypoxia increased Ppa and did not change pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (Ppw). After bilateral cervical vagotomy or after atropine, Ppa and Ppw at all levels of Q were not modified either during hyperoxia or during hypoxia. These results show that the parasympathetic system does not affect the global hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasopressor response and thus suggest that the depressor effect of chemoreceptor stimulation on HPV is not vagally mediated.