Résumé : In urban area, atmospheric pollution is principally caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), and suspended particulates and ozone (O3). The major sources of emission are directly or indirectly related to automobile traffic, local industry and domestic heating. While high concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are clearly associated with increased respiratory morbidity, the association between atmospheric pollution at lower and more usual level(s) and respiratory disease remains controversial. Comparing requirement of an emergency department in an urban hospital and levels of atmospheric pollution, we studied the relationship between air pollution and acute respiratory morbidity. We analysed 549 cases of respiratory disease during 1 year and assessed levels of atmospheric pollutants daily (NO, NO2, SO2, O3, suspended particulates, CO) during this year. Because of major confounding factors (tobacco, indoor pollution, etc.), low levels of pollutants and limited number of cases, the relationship was difficult to assess. However in our study, concentration of SO2 was correlated with an increased incidence of respiratory diseases (bronchitis exacerbations and pneumonia). These data suggest that SO2 could increase sensitivity to respiratory infections as it was already demonstrated in animal models. These data need to be confirmed by other investigations.