Résumé : Chemotherapy-induced morphonuclear modifications were monitored in vivo by means of the digital cell image analysis of Feulgen-stained nuclei. Two experimental models were used, i.e. the P388 mouse leukaemia and the MXT mouse mammary carcinoma. The drugs used were doxorubicin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide. The results indicate that the chemotherapy induced a significant decrease in the MXT tumour growth and a significant increase in the survival of the P388 leukaemic mice. These effects were accompanied at the morphonuclear level by an increase in the nuclear area, by modifications in the DNA content in accordance with the effects of the drugs on the cell cycle and by several modifications in the chromatin texture in accordance with the model or the drugs studied. While there were neither homogeneous morphonuclear changes in all treatment groups nor clearcut correlations between the morphonuclear changes and tumour growth or the survival of the animals, the present study nevertheless shows that it is possible, at least partly, to monitor in vivo certain chemotherapy-induced effects occurring at the morphonuclear level, and subsequently to obtain information on the mode of action of the drugs.