Résumé : The bactericidal activity of a cholic acid antimicrobial derivative, CSA-13, was tested against eight strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both reference and clinical strains) and compared with the response to tobramycin. In planktonic cultures, the minimal inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations of CSA-13 and tobramycin were in the 1-25 mg/L range except for one mucoid clinical strain which was much less sensitive to tobramycin (minimal bactericidal concentration, 65-125 mg/L). In young (24 h) biofilms, the sensitivity to CSA-13 was reduced (half-maximal concentration CSA-13 averaged 88 mg/L) and varied among the eight strains. The sensitivity to tobramycin was also very variable among the strains and some were fully resistant to the aminoglycoside. The combination of tobramycin with CSA-13 was synergistic in five strains. Only one strain showed antagonism between the two drugs at low concentrations of CSA-13. One reference and five clinical strains were tested in mature (12 days) biofilms. The effect of CSA-13 was delayed, some strains requiring 9 days exposure to the drug to observe a bactericidal effect. All the strains were tolerant to tobramycin but the addition of CSA-13 with tobramycin was synergistic in three strains. CSA-13 permeabilized the outer membrane of the bacteria (half-maximal concentration, 4.4 mg/L). At concentrations higher than 20 mg/L, it also permeabilized the plasma membrane of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, CSA-13 has bactericidal activity against P. aeruginosa even in mature biofilms and cationic steroid antibiotics can thus be considered as potential candidates for the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections of patients with cystic fibrosis. Considering its interaction with the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, less toxic derivatives of CSA-13 should be developed.