Résumé : One hundred and seven consecutive patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANL) aged less than 56 years were allocated to receive either allogeneic (allo-BMT) or autologous bone marrow transplantation (auto-BMT) when first complete remission (CR1) was achieved. CR was obtained in 96 patients. Twenty-four patients had an HLA-identical sibling donor and 20 of these (83%) had an allograft in CR1. Thirty-three patients (44% of the CR1 patients without donor) had an autograft in CR1. The reasons for not transplanting patients in CR1 were early relapse (nine patients), refusal (11 patients) or medical problems (23 patients). The 4-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) probability for all the CR1 patients was 25%. For the allo-BMT patients, the 4-year LFS was 71%, and for the auto-BMT patients 31% (log-rank p = 0.028). The relapse probabilities were 33% and 48% respectively (p = 0.40). If the results are analysed according to the intent of the protocol, patients with a donor had an LFS of 53%, and patients without a donor an LFS of 16% (p = 0.003). This study confirms the value of allo-BMT for consolidation of ANL in CR1. The attempt to autograft all CR1 patients without a compatible donor has not resulted in any marked improvement of LFS.