Résumé : All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent inducer of differentiation and cell death in malignant cells. Its effect is known to be mediated through binding to specific nuclear (RARs and RXRs) or cytoplasmic (CRABP) proteins. ATRA is strikingly effective in acute promyelocytic leukemia (the AML3 subtype) inducing a high incidence of complete remissions. Paradoxically, most AML3 cells harbor an abnormal retinoic acid receptor (PML/RAR alpha) resulting from the t(15;17) translocation. Though few AML3 patients do not respond to ATRA therapy, individualization of these cases is of practical importance. Recently the RAR alpha gene has been demonstrated to be involved in a novel fusion transcript (PLZF/RAR alpha) through a t(11;17) translocation. We describe here the second case of such a patient with a t(11;17)-PLZF/RAR alpha leukemic clone. Southern analysis revealed that the breakpoint in the RAR alpha gene was within the second intron (as for PML/RAR alpha) and the intron separating the second and third zinc finger of the PLZF gene. In vitro, the leukemic cells did not show increased NBT reduction or loss of self-renewal after incubation with ATRA. After therapy with ATRA, only partial remission was obtained. These results suggest that the t(11;17) (PLZF/RAR alpha) case of this study was less responsive to ATRA therapy than t(15;17) (PML/RAR alpha) cases and raises the question of the definition of this novel AML subtype.