Résumé : High levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-2, and gamma-interferon appeared in the circulation of kidney transplant recipients after the first injection of the monoclonal antibody OKT3. This initial injection was systematically followed by fever. The three cytokines were released in all patients (n = 9), with peak serum levels of tumor necrosis factor occurring 1 hr after OKT3 injection and those of interleukin-2 and gamma-interferon after 2 hr. Cytokines were not released after the second and third OKT3 injections, when CD3+ cells had disappeared from blood. These findings suggest that circulating cytokines are released by T cells after activation by OKT3. These cytokines are probably involved in the systematic reactions observed after injection of OKT3.