Résumé : BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were reported to reduce some allergic manifestations in mice and humans but their impact on the aeroallergen-dependent immune mechanisms is still debated. OBJECTIVE: The potential capacities of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 to reduce the allergic response induced by Der p 1, the major house dust mite allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Methods First, the effect of the intranasal co-administration of LAB and purified Der p 1 allergen before a sensitization protocol was evaluated. The allergen-specific antibody and cellular responses as well as airway inflammation were measured. Second, the impact of LAB on the cytokine profile of spleens cells from Der p 1-sensitized mice was assessed. Third, upon stimulation with LAB, the levels of cytokine produced by dendritic cells derived from the bone marrow (BMDCs) of wild-type, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-, TLR4- and MyD88-KO mice were compared. Results The co-application of L. plantarum and Der p 1 induced a T-helper type 1 (Th1)-biased allergen-specific IgG response, the absence of specific IgE response and favoured the production of INF-gamma upon allergen re-stimulation. Moreover, the previous LAB administration reduced the development of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia usually induced by aerosol exposure. Additionally, the studied LAB strain was shown to modify in vitro the cytokine level produced by Der p 1-sensitized spleen cells mainly towards a Th1 profile. Finally, L. plantarum stimulated high IL-12 and moderate IL-10 production in mouse BMDCs notably through the TLR2-, MyD88-dependent and TLR4-independent pathway. CONCLUSION: In vivo co-administration of probiotic LAB with Der p 1 might prevent the development of the mite allergic response. The probiotic L. plantarum was shown to display in vitro therapeutic potentials for the treatment of allergy and to trigger the immune system by a TLR2- and MyD88-dependent signalling pathway.