Résumé : Although there is pharmacological evidence to assume that the P2Y4 receptor is a regulator of epithelial ion transport, no detailed data about its distribution within the gut are available. Therefore, this study, using whole mounts and cryosections, aimed to reveal the expression pattern of P2Y4 along the entire guinea-pig gastrointestinal tract. P2Y4 immunoreactivity was absent from enteric neurons but present in enteric glial cells of the stomach, small and large intestine. In the esophagus, P2Y4 appeared to be exclusively located within striated muscle cells. P2Y4 showed also a region dependency regarding its presence in different subpopulations of interstitial cells of Cajal: in myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal in the stomach and ileum; in some intramuscular interstitial cells in the stomach and cecum; in some deep muscular plexus interstitial cells in the ileum; and in some submucosal surface interstitial cells in the colon. These results and the knowledge that P2Y4 activation causes intracellular Ca2+ recruitment led us to suggest that P2Y4 in enteric glia plays a modulatory role in intercellular Ca2+ waves, while P2Y4 in interstitial cells of Cajal modulates intracellular Ca2+ oscillations.