Résumé : Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for the induction of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses and may be essential for the development of human vaccines relying on T cell immunity. We investigated the effects on human DC of OM-197, a synthetic pseudodipeptide derived from amino acids, linked to three fatty acid chains and devoid of endotoxin properties. OM-197 upregulated the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40 and CD54 at the surface of myeloid DC naturally present in blood as well as of DC generated in vitro from monocytes using IL-4 and GM-CSF. OM-197 also induced the release of IL-12 and TNF-alpha from DC. Finally, DC incubated with OM-197 after pulsing with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) induced in vitro expansion of IFN-gamma-secreting HBs Ag-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes from naive individuals. Taken together, these data identify OM-197 as a potential vaccine adjuvant for the induction of Th1-type responses.