Résumé : Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are rare systemic inflammatory disorders with overlapping symptoms, elevated eosinophil counts, and heterogenous clinical presentations. Although progress has been made in recent years, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of the pathologic mechanisms involved in these diseases, as well as numerous unmet needs relating to both diagnosis and patient management. For example, in most cases of HES, the underlying cause of hypereosinophilia is unknown, while in EGPA, although a polygenic genetic susceptibility has been found, understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms remains largely elusive. Delineating differences between certain disease variants may be challenging, and there are no reliable predictive markers of disease course. In addition, the current diagnostic criteria for HES and classification criteria for EGPA are not easy to implement in a nonspecialist setting, and specialist referral pathways need to be signposted more clearly. Furthermore, disease-specific activity scores need to be developed to aid the assessment of treatment effects, and improved biomarkers are needed to aid with treatment stratification. In this review, we outline the limitations of our current understanding of HES and EGPA and highlight areas for future work, which ultimately should help improve patient management and outcomes.