Résumé : Abstract Chile's isolation and varied climates have driven the evolution of a unique biodiversity with a high degree of endemism. As a result, Chile encompasses diverse environments, including the Mediterranean‐type ecosystem, a global biodiversity hotspot. These environments are currently threatened by anthropogenic land use change impacting the integrity of local biomes and associated species. This area is the most intensively sampled in the country with high endemicity of native bee species. Characterizing habitat requirements of bees is a pressing priority to safeguard these insects and the ecosystem services they provide. We investigated broadscale patterns of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) diversity using newly accessible expert‐validated datasets comprising digitized specimen records from Chilean and US collections, and novel expert‐validated‐type specimen data for the bees of Chile. We used a generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM) approach to explore both compositional and phylogenetic β‐diversity patterns across latitudinal, altitudinal, climate, and habitat gradients in well‐sampled bee assemblages in Central Chile. Using the GDM measures of increasing compositional and environmental dissimilarity, we categorized and compared the most important drivers of these patterns and used them to classify “wild bee ecoregions” (WBEs) representing unique assemblages. Turnover of bee assemblages was explained primarily by latitudinal variation (proxy for climate) from south to north in Chile. However, temperature variations, precipitation, and the presence of bare soil also significantly explained turnover in bee assemblages. In comparison, we observed less turnover in phylogenetic biodiversity corresponding to spatial gradients. We identified six de novo ecoregions (WBEs), all with distinct taxa, endemic lineages, and representative species. The WBEs represent distinct spatial classifications but have similarities to existing biogeographical classifications, ecosystems, and bioclimatic zones. This approach establishes the baseline needed to prioritize bee species conservation efforts across this global biodiversity hotspot. We discuss the novelty of this classification considering previous biogeographical characterizations and their relevance in assessing conservation priorities for bee conservation. We argue that Chile's WBEs highlight areas in need of funding for bee species surveys and description, distribution mapping, and strengthening of conservation policies.