Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Down syndrome, caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21, is the most prevalent intellectual disability of genetic origin. Among numerous comorbidities which are part of the phenotype of individuals with Down syndrome, ocular problems appear to be highly prevalent. Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations, such as ocular alignment and motility disturbances, amblyopia, hypoaccommodation or optic nerve abnormalities, and other organic ocular anomalies frequently reported in Down syndrome, may lead to an overall decrease in visual acuity. Although numerous studies have reported ocular anomalies related to Down syndrome, it remains challenging to determine the impact of each anomaly upon the decreased visual acuity, as most such individuals have more than one ocular problem. Even in children with Down syndrome and no apparent ocular defect, visual acuity has been found to be reduced compared with typically developing children. Pediatric ophthalmological examination is a critical component of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent and treat ocular complications and improve the visual outcome in children with Down syndrome. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of the neuro-ophthalmological manifestations and discuss the current ophthalmological management in children with Down syndrome.