Résumé : Background: The challenge of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to remove the entire tumour with free margins and avoid secondary excision that may adversely affect the cosmetic outcome. Consequently, intraoperative evaluation of surgical margins is critical. The aims of this study were multiple. First, to analyse our methodology of intraoperative examination of the resection margins and to evaluate radiological and pathological methods in the assessment of the surgical margins. Second, to evaluate the factors associated with positive margins in our patient population. M&m: The data on the resection margin status of 290 patients who underwent BCS for invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) between 2009 and 2016 were reviewed. Results: In the cohort of BCS with invasive carcinoma, the negative predictive value was 97.4% for intraoperative assessment by radiography and 81.8% for intraoperative assessment by pathology. The re-operation rate among cases without intraoperative assessment was 23.6% compared to 7.3% among cases with intraoperative assessment (P =.003). Margin status was significantly associated with tumour size, histological subtype (invasive lobular carcinoma), and multifocality. In the population of BCS with DCIS, margin status was significantly associated with preoperative localisation and intraoperative margin assessment (P =.03). Conclusion: There is no statistical difference between pathological and radiological intraoperative assessment. Tumour size, lobular subtype, and multifocality were found to be significantly associated with positive margins in cases with invasive carcinoma, whereas absence of intraoperative margin assessment was significantly associated with positive margins in cases with DCIS. Therefore, intraoperative margin assessment improves the likelihood of complete excision of the lesion.