Résumé : Electroencephalography (EEG) of neonatal patients is amongst the most valuable diagnostic and prognostic tool. EEG recordings, acquired at the bedside of infants, evaluate brain function and the maturation of premature and extremely premature infants. Strict conditions of acquisition and interpretation must be respected to guarantee the quality of the EEG and ensure its safety for fragile children. This article provides guidance for EEG acquisition including: (1) the required equipment and devices, (2) the modalities of installation and asepsis precautions, and (3) the digital signal acquisition parameters to use during the recording. The fundamental role of a well-trained technician in supervising the EEG recording is emphasized. In parallel to the acquisition recommendations, we present a guideline for EEG interpretation and reporting. The successive steps of EEG interpretation, from reading the EEG to writing the report, are described. The complexity of the EEG signal in neonates makes artefact detection difficult. Thus, we provide an overview of certain characteristic artefacts and detail the methods for eliminating them.