Résumé : Background It is well documented that treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is effective. However, little is known about the long-term outcomes for children treated for SAM. We sought to trace former SAM patients 11 to 30 years after their discharge from hospital, and to describe their longer-term survival and their growth to adulthood. Methods A total of 1,981 records of subjects admitted for SAM between 1988 and 2007 were taken from the archives of Lwiro hospital, in South Kivu, DRC. The median age on admission was 41 months. Between December 2017 and June 2018, we set about identifying these subjects (cases) in the health zones of Miti-Murhesa and Katana. For deceased subjects, the cause and year of death were collected. A Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the death-related factors. For the cases seen, age- and gender-matched community controls were selected for a comparison of anthropometric indicators. Results A total of 600 subjects were traced, and 201 subjects were deceased. Of the deceased subjects, 65·6% were under 10 years old at the time of their death. Of the deaths, 59·2% occurred within 5 years of discharge from hospital. The main causes of death were malaria (14·9%), kwashiorkor (13·9%), respiratory infections (10·4%), and diarrhoeal diseases (8·9%). The risk of death was higher in subjects with SAM, MAM combined with CM, and in male subjects, with HRs* of 1·83 (p = 0·043), 2.35 (p = 0·030) and 1.44 (p = 0·013) respectively. Compared with their controls, the cases had a low weight (-1·7 kg, p = 0·001), short height [sitting (-1·3 cm, p = 0·006) and standing (-1·7 cm, p = 0·003)], short legs (-1·6 cm, p = 0·002), and a small mid-upper arm circumference (-3·2mm, p = 0·051). There was no difference in terms of BMI, thoracic length, or head and thoracic circumference between the two groups. Conclusion SAM during childhood has lasting negative effects on growth to adulthood. In addition, these adults have characteristics that may place them at risk of chronic non-communicable diseases later in life.