Résumé : Aptamers constitute an emerging class of molecules designed and selected to recognize any given target that ranges from small compounds to large biomolecules, and even cells. However, the underlying physicochemical principles that govern the ligand-binding process still have to be clarified. A major issue when dealing with short oligonucleotides is their intrinsic flexibility that renders their active conformation highly sensitive to experimental conditions. To overcome this problem and determine the best experimental parameters, an approach based on the design-of-experiments methodology has been developed. Here, the focus is on DNA aptamers that possess high specificity and affinity for small molecules, L-tyrosinamide, and adenosine monophosphate. Factors such as buffer, pH value, ionic strength, Mg(2+) -ion concentration, and ligand/aptamer ratio have been considered to find the optimal experimental conditions. It was then possible to gain new insight into the conformational features of the two ligands by using ligand-observed NMR spectroscopic techniques and molecular mechanics.