Résumé : PURPOSE: To validate lung attenuation measurements for quantifying extravascular lung water in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema, compare subjective assessment with attenuation measurements, and compare this permeability-type pulmonary edema with hydrostatic-type pulmonary edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thin-section computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary hemodynamic examinations were performed sequentially in six dogs before and after intravenous administration of 0.08 mg of oleic acid per kilogram of body weight. Extravascular lung water and pulmonary capillary pressure were measured. Results were compared with those reported in a canine model of hydrostatic edema. RESULTS: Oleic acid induced a progressive increase in extravascular lung water without a change in capillary pressure, which indicated pure permeability-type edema. Ground-glass opacification was detected as soon as extravascular lung water increased. Lung attenuation was highly correlated to extravascular lung water (r = 0.76, P<.001), as in hydrostatic edema, but was characterized by an almost absent gravitational gradient. CONCLUSION: Thin-section CT is sensitive for early detection and quantification of oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema in a canine model. Different from early canine hydrostatic edema, which is characterized by a gravitational gradient, early oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema in a supine dog is characterized by nearly homogeneous distribution, except for ventral sparing.