Résumé : This review is part of a special issue entitled “Role of dietary pattern, foods, nutrients and nutraceuticals in supporting cancer prevention and treatment” and describes a pharmacological strategy to determine the potential contribution of food-related components as anticancer agents against established cancer. Therefore, this review does not relate to chemoprevention, which is analysed in several other reviews in the current special issue, but rather focuses on the following: i) the biological events that currently represent barriers against the treatment of certain types of cancers, primarily metastatic cancers; ii) the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological pre-clinical tests that can be used to analyse the potential anticancer effects of food-related components; and iii) several examples of food-related components with anticancer effects. This review does not represent a catalogue-based listing of food-related components with more or less anticancer activity. By contrast, this review proposes an original pharmacological strategy that researchers can use to analyse the potential anticancer activity of any food-related component—e.g., by considering the crucial characteristics of cancer biological aggressiveness. This review also highlights that cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy should restrict the use of “food complements” without supervision by a medical nutritionist. By contrast, an equilibrated diet that includes the food-related components listed herein would be beneficial for cancer patients who are not undergoing chemotherapy.