Résumé : The GLIS family zinc finger 3 isoform (GLIS3) is a risk gene for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease endophenotype. We identified GLIS3 binding sites in insulin secreting cells (INS1) (FDR q<0.05; enrichment range 1.40-9.11 fold) sharing the motif wrGTTCCCArTAGs, which were enriched in genes involved in neuronal function and autophagy and in risk genes for metabolic and neuro-behavioural diseases. We confirmed experimentally Glis3-mediated regulation of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and neuron function in INS1 and neuronal PC12 cells. Naturally-occurring coding polymorphisms in Glis3 in the Goto-Kakizaki rat model of type 2 diabetes were associated with increased insulin production in vitro and in vivo, suggestive alteration of autophagy in PC12 and INS1 and abnormal neurogenesis in hippocampus neurons. Our results support biological pleiotropy of GLIS3 in pathologies affecting β-cells and neurons and underline the existence of trans‑nosology pathways in diabetes and its co-morbidities.