Résumé : Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from β-cell destruction due to concerted action of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β and interferon-γ, secreted by the immune cells invading islets of Langerhans, contribute to pancreatic β-cell death in T1D. Cytokine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a central role in β-cell demise. ER stress can modulate autophagic response; however, no study addressed the regulation of autophagy during the pathophysiology of T1D. In this study, we document that cytokines activate the AMPK-ULK-1 pathway while inhibiting mTORC1, which stimulates autophagy activity in an ER stress-dependent manner. On the other hand, time-course analysis of LC3-II accumulation in autophagosomes revealed that cytokines block the autophagy flux in an ER stress independent manner, leading to the formation of large dysfunctional autophagosomes and worsening of ER stress. Cytokines rapidly impair lysosome function, leading to lysosome membrane permeabilization, Cathepsin B leakage and lysosomal cell death. Blocking cathepsin activity partially protects against cytokine-induced or torin1-induced apoptosis, whereas blocking autophagy aggravates cytokine-induced CHOP overexpression and β-cell apoptosis. In conclusion, cytokines stimulate the early steps of autophagy while blocking the autophagic flux, which aggravate ER stress and trigger lysosomal cell death. Restoration of autophagy/lysosomal function may represent a novel strategy to improve β-cell resistance in the context of T1D.