par Poortmans, Jacques ;Gualano, Bruno;Carpentier, Alain
Référence Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 18, 6, page (599-604)
Publication Publié, 2015-10
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Purpose of review Ergogenic supplements in sport events are widely used by popular and competitive athletes to enhance performance and reduce oxygen cost. Beetroot juice and nitrate salts have been increasingly used for the past 5-6 years. The present review discusses the scientific background, the efficiency and potential adverse effects of excessive nitrate supplementation. Recent findings There is clear evidence that nitrate from different food ingredients (such as beetroot juice and other vegetables) is converted into nitrite and possibly into nitric oxide, which may promote vasodilation, angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. The high affinity of nitric oxide towards different enzyme pathways inhibits excessive mitochondrial respiration and, therefore, tissue oxygen consumption. In addition, L-Arginine supplements are proposed to stimulate nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium. On the basis of these biochemical properties, nitrate supplementation has been suggested to athletes to enhance exercise performance. Summary The recent publications in human individuals based on L-Arginine, beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation revealed either a minor positive effect or no systematic effect on exercise performance, especially in trained athletes. Of note, the sugar content of whole beetroot juice might induce a slightly more pronounced effect. Although reasonable intake of nitrate salts (up to 1 g/day) has no detrimental effect on kidney function, the risk and benefit of higher nitrate intake needs to be evaluated to define the optimal range of supplementation.