Résumé : The conditionally lethal mutation, 286lmis, has been mapped inside the ribosomal protein gene cluster at 72 minutes on the Escherichia coli chromosome and was found to cotransduce at 97% with rpsE (S5). The 2861mis mutation leads to thermosensitivity and impaired assembly in vivo of 30S ribosomal particles at 42°C. The strain carrying the mutation has an altered S17 ribosomal protein; the mutational alteration involves a replacement of serine by phenylalanine in protein S17. Spontaneous reversion to temperature independence can restore the normal assembly in vivo of 30S ribosomal subunits at 42°C and the normal chromatographical sehaviour of the S17 ribosomal protein in vitro. We conclude therefore that the 2861mis mutation affects the structural gene for protein S17 (rpsQ). © 1979 Springer-Verlag.