Résumé : This research focuses on the socio-demographic factors and previous school paths that contribute to "passing" the first year at university. The analysis of empirical data collected in French-language Belgium revealed that female students outperform male students, irrespective of previous school paths. Beyond the gender-based achievement gap, interaction effects between gender and parents' level of education also emerge. For example, gender-based achievement gaps-in any case always favourable to female students-increase as the level of education of parents is higher. In addition, when fathers have the same degree level, mothers' qualifications are not a factor in male achievement but contribute significantly to female attainment.learning outcome, gender, socio-cultural environment, social inequality, gender equality, parents.