Résumé : Keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome is a rare congenital ectodermal disorder. It appears to be genetically heterogeneous and may be caused by mutations in the connexin 26 (Cx26) gene (GJB2) or in the connexin 30 gene. It is characterized by the association of ichthyosis-like skin lesions, hearing loss, and vascularizing keratitis. We report the clinical and molecular findings in a 5-year-old girl with keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome. DNA sequencing in our patient revealed a p.Ser17Phe mutation in GJB2. Besides the typical clinical features of keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome, a peculiar intriguing finding not previously described in the literature in this condition was that polarizing light microscopy of the scalp hair in our patient revealed striking bright and dark bands as seen in trichothiodystrophy. Amino acid analysis of the hair sample also disclosed a reduced cysteine index. We emphasize that it would be of great benefit to examine hair shafts in other patients with keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome for trichothiodystrophy- like abnormalities. © 2008 The Authors.