Résumé : Extremely asymmetric nuclear hybrids have been obtained via protoplast fusion in an intergeneric combination. Irradiated (cobalt60,100 krad) kanamycinresistant Petunia hybrida mesophyll protoplasts were chemically fused with wild-type mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Eighty-six hybrid colonies were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and twenty-four of these could be induced to regenerate numerous shoots. Cytological analysis of the regenerants showed the presence of a few chromosome fragments in some lines, and even a metacentric chromosome in yet another line. Besides additional chromosome fragments some lines only possessed typical Nicotiana chromosomes, and this at the diploid (2n = 2X = 20) as well as the tetraploid (2n = 2X = 40) level. Biochemical analysis showed that all regenerants had neomycin phosphotransferase activity (NPTII), which suggests that intergenomic recombination and or translocation events took place at least in those lines where no additional chromosome fragments could be detected. The presence of the NPTII gene was shown by Southern hybridization. All regenerants tested were fertile, and the segregation ratios for the kanamycin gene (for self and backcross pollinations to the recipient partner) for some of the regenerants correspond with Mendelian rules for a monogenic dominant marker. Most of the regenerants showed abnormal segregation ratios; in this case, no correlation could be made between segregation ratio and chromosome composition. Our results demonstrate the existence of intergenomic recombination and translocations evens in nuclear somatic hybrid plants obtained via "gamma"-fusion. © 1991 Springer-Verlag.