Résumé : This paper presents a spectral and time-frequency analysis of EEG signals recorded on seven healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at three different speeds. An accelerometer was placed on the head of the subjects in order to record the shocks undergone by the EEG electrodes during walking. Our results indicate that up to 15 harmonics of the fundamental stepping frequency may pollute EEG signals, depending on the walking speed and also on the electrode location. This finding may call into question some conclusions drawn in previous EEG studies where low-delta band (especially around 1. Hz, the fundamental stepping frequency) had been announced as being the seat of angular and linear kinematics control of the lower limbs during walk. Additionally, our analysis reveals that EEG and accelerometer signals exhibit similar time-frequency properties, especially in frequency bands extending up to 150. Hz, suggesting that previous conclusions claiming the activation of high-gamma rhythms during walking may have been drawn on the basis of insufficiently cleaned EEG signals. Our results are put in perspective with recent EEG studies related to locomotion and extensively discussed in particular by focusing on the low-delta and high-gamma bands. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.