Résumé : Pulmonary hypertension is a frequent complication of left heart disease arising from a wide range of cardiac disorders and is associated with poor prognosis. Its pathophysiology is complex with both passive mechanisms of elevated filling pressures in left cavities and occasionally reactive mechanisms of arterial vasoconstriction and remodelling to interplay. This stage, called «out-o-fproportion» pulmonary hypertension, further worsens the heart failure patients' prognosis but is still a matter of debate concerning the criteria to apply for its diagnosis and concerning the best way to manage it. This article gives an overview of the importance and pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease, and discusses the challenges associated with its diagnosis and treatment.