Résumé : The following recommendations, which aim at improving the clinical diagnosis ofTRALI and the laboratory investigations that can support it, were drawn up by a working group of the Superior Health Council. TRALI is a complication of blood transfusion that is both serious and underreported. Systematic reporting may help to develop preventive actions. Therefore, the Superior Health Council recommends that there should be a more stringent surveillance of patients who receive a blood component transfusion. The clinician should pay very close attention to any change in the patient's respiratory status (cf. dyspnoea and arterial desaturation), which should be notified systematically to the haemovigilance contact person in the hospital.