Résumé : Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a paediatric disease characterized by lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity. Most patients are known to carry heterozygous mutations of the TNFRSF6 gene leading to diminished Fas-mediated apoptosis and failure of activated lymphocytes to undergo apoptosis. A subgroup of patients without the TNFRSF6 gene mutation has similar defective apoptosis and clinical features. No effective treatment has been reported so far. Glucocorticoids, intravenous immunoglobulin and/or immunosuppressive drugs have usually led to only transient clinical improvement. Seven ALPS patients (two type Ia and five type III) were treated with the antimalarial drug Fansidar. No toxicity was observed. An objective response was seen in six of them and, in two, the treatment was stopped without reappearance of the symptoms. Moreover, a marked decrease in interleukin-10 levels was observed in two patients during the treatment. We found that the drug induced apoptosis in activated lymphocytes through activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.