Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : S-100 protein, which is found essentially in the astrocytes of the nervous system, was assayed in amniotic fluids by Particle Counting ImmunoAssay. It was present in 19 cases of anencephaly out of 26, in 1 case of open spina bifida out of 5 and in each of the 4 cases of fetal death, whereas it was not detected in the 48 control amniotic fluids collected between the 16th and the 35th week of gestation. Thirty-one amniotic fluids from fetuses with other congenital malformations were devoid of detectable S-100. The presence of S-100 in amniotic fluid of anencephalic fetuses can presumably be considered as a biological sign of necrosis of the exencephalic brain and seems specific to damage of the central nervous system accompanied by neural tube defect.