Résumé : Folliculogenesis is a complex process regulated by various paracrine and autocrine factors. In vitro growth systems of primordial and preantral follicles have been developed for future use of immature oocytes, as sources of fertilizable oocytes and for studying follicular growth and oocyte maturation mechanisms. Rodents were often chosen for in vitro follicular culture research and a lot of factors implicated in folliculogenesis have been identified using this model. To date, the mouse is the only species in which the whole process of follicular growth, oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo transfer into recipient females was successfully performed. However, the efficiency of in vitro culture systems must still be considerably improved. Within the follicle, numerous events affect cell proliferation and the acquisition of oocyte developmental competency in vitro, including interactions between the follicular cells and the oocyte, and the composition of the culture medium. Effects of the acting factors depend on the stage of follicle development, the culture system used and the species. This paper reviews the action of endocrine, paracrine factors and other components of culture medium on in vitro growth of preantral follicles in rodents.