Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Despite the lack of characteristic features, demyelination is the dominant feature of radiation induced late effects observed in cerebral nervous system and spinal cord. Acute, subacute and chronic changes are described in terms of pathological, clinical and radiological observations. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, while imaging changes are observed with lower doses. The most widely observed dose limit for the spinal cord is 45 Gy, in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiochemotherapy effects. The potential protective role of hyperfractionation is not yet clearly established. Peripheral nerves late effects, although rare, are described.