Résumé : We studied the cells from three selected patients with Ph-chromosome-negative chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) by Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of informative probes to metaphase chromosomes. All three patients had rearrangement of M-BCR sequences in the BCR gene and expression of one or other of the mRNA species characteristic of Ph-positive CML. Leukemic metaphases studied after trypsin-Giemsa banding were indistinguishable from normal. The ABL probe localized both to chromosome 9 and 22 in each case. A probe containing 3' M-BCR sequences localized only to chromosome 22, and not to chromosome 9 as would be expected in Ph-positive CML. Two new probes that recognize different polymorphic regions distal to the ABL gene on chromosome 9 in normal subjects localized exclusively to chromosome 9 in two patients and to both chromosomes 9 and 22 in one patient. These results show that Ph-negative CML with BCR rearrangement is associated with insertion of a variable quantity of chromosome 9 derived material into chromosome 22q11; there is no evidence for reciprocal translocation of material from chromosome 22 to chromosome 9.