Résumé : The purpose of this study was to compare the antibody responses to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gE and gB after natural VZV infection and after vaccination with live attenuated OKA vaccine in order to determine the relative importance of these proteins as components of a subunit vaccine. Anti-VZV antibody titers determined by IFA were of the same order of magnitude in sera from individuals with a history of varicella and in vaccinated children but higher in individuals given booster vaccination. The titers of anti-gE and anti-gB antibodies were measured by ELISA using recombinant gE or gB as capture antigen. From these experiments, it appears that the ratio of anti-gE to anti-gB antibody is highly variable from one individual to another but relatively stable over a long period of time for a particular individual, even after a zoster episode. Neutralizing antibodies directed against gE or gB were also measured by subtracting the neutralization titers obtained before and after depletion of the specific antibodies on immobilized recombinant gE, gB, or both. This showed that, with respect to neutralization, anti-gE and anti-gB are equally prevalent in vaccinated children and that anti-gE is generally, but not always, predominant over anti-gB in VZV-infected individuals. Finally, antibodies to these two glycoproteins appear to be predominant among the neutralizing antibodies directed to other VZV antigens.