Résumé : Calbindin 28K and calretinin are very similar calcium binding proteins which are both present in the central nervous system (CNS). They respectively bind 4 and 5 Ca++ ions. We have compared by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization their localisation in the brain and the retina. The two proteins are generally expressed in different neurons with a few neurons containing both calcium binding proteins. Calbindin 28K is also present in the endocrine system. We have examined the cellular distribution of calbindin in the pancreatic endocrine cells of chick, rat and human and found variable distribution among the different endocrine cell types. We also describe the presence of calbindin in RINm5F cells, an insulin-producing tumor cell line derived from a radiation-induced rat insulinoma.