Résumé : Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a key role in immune system homeostasis and tolerance to antigens, thereby preventing auto-immunity, and may be partly responsible for the lack of an appropriate immune response against tumor cells. Although not sufficient, a high expression of FOXP3 is necessary for their suppressive function. Recent reports have shown that HDAC inhibitors increased FOXP3 expression in T-cells. We therefore decided to investigate in non-Tregs CD4-positive cells, the mechanisms by which an aspecific opening of the chromatin could lead to an increased FOXP3 expression. We focused on binding of potentially activating transcription factors to the promoter region of FOXP3 and on modifications in the five miRs constituting the Tregs signature. Valproate treatment induced binding of Ets-1 and Ets-2 to the FOXP3 promoter and acted positively on its expression, by increasing the acetylation of histone H4 lysines. Valproate treatment also induced the acquisition of the miRs Tregs signature. To elucidate whether the changes in the miRs expression could be due to the increased FOXP3 expression, we transduced these non-Tregs with a FOXP3 lentiviral expression vector, and found no changes in miRs expression. Therefore the modification in their miRs expression profile is not due to an increased expression of FOXP3, but directly results from HDAC inhibition. Rather, the increased FOXP3 expression results from the additive effects of Ets factors binding and the change in expression level of miR-21 and miR-31. We conclude that valproate treatment of human non-Tregs confers them a molecular profile similar to that of their regulatory counterpart.