Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Activating mutations of the TSH receptor (TSH-R) have been reported to result in toxic adenomas, multinodular goiters, sporadic neonatal hyperthyroidism, and familial autosomal dominant nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. To date, all descriptions of such mutations, whether somatic or genomic, have been confined to the Caucasian population. We describe a Chinese family in whom a germline proline to serine substitution in position 639 resulted in familial thyrotoxicosis. This constitutively activating mutation has been previously described in a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. The three children in this family developed thyrotoxicosis during childhood; their father was diagnosed as thyrotoxic at the age of 38 yr. Two of the children and the father had mitral valve prolapse (MVP) associated with mitral regurgitation. There was a close temporal relationship between the onset of thyrotoxicosis and the diagnosis of mitral valvular disease in these patients. An increased prevalence of MVP has been reported in Graves' disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, but the pathophysiological mechanisms linking MVP and autoimmune thyroid disease are still not understood. This is the first report of an association between activating TSH-R mutations and MVP. We postulate that TSH-R activation may increase the clinical expression of MVP in genetically predisposed individuals.