Résumé : We have tested sera from patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders with or without ophthalmopathy for immunoreactivity, in a dot blot assay, against a recombinant 98 amino acid fragment of a cloned 64 kDa protein, D1, which is expressed in human eye muscle and thyroid, in the form of a Lac Z fusion protein. Tests were positive in 19 out of 40 patients with established thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), in 12 out of 21 patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) without clinically evident ophthalmopathy, in 5 out of 10 patients with thyroid autoimmunity and lid retraction but no other signs of ophthalmopathy, in 4 out of 23 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) without evident ophthalmopathy and in 2 out of 18 patients with benign adenoma or multinodular goitre, but in only 2 out of 37 normal subjects tested. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting for an antibody reactive with a 64 kDa antigen in pig eye muscle membranes was also carried out on sera from patients with TAO and GH. While immunoblotting for antibodies reactive with a 64 kDa protein was more often positive in patients with TAO, in whom 58% had serum antibodies which reacted with a 64 kDa protein, this was not the case in patients with GH without eye signs in whom the prevalence of positive immunoblot tests was 35%. Overall there was a fairly close correlation between the two tests although there were many exceptions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)