Résumé : The present work aims to refine prognosis in cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by integrating a variety of parameters with the prognostic information provided by histopathological grading and clinical staging, carried out on a series of 97 RCCs. To this end, Feulgen-stained RCC cell nuclei were characterized by means of 38 variables describing nuclear DNA ploidy levels and morphology. All of these data were subjected to a principal components analysis. On the basis of this multivariate analysis, Fuhrman grade II was subdivided into grades II- and II+, and Fuhrman grade III into grade III- and III+. The same kind of subcategorization was performed in the case of the T2 and T3 clinical stages. The results show that the classification into grade II- and III- RCCs correspond to a more favourable prognosis than grade II+ and III+, to which shorter survival periods were attributable. Similar results were obtained for the subcategorization of the T2 and T3 clinical stages. Very simple biological characterizations of these grade- or stage-related RCC groups were obtained by means of a decision tree approach applied to the cytometry-generated variables. The resulting classification rules were validated on a new series of 18 patients and enabled very accurate predictions of survival.