Résumé : We describe a patient with monoclonal gammopathy who subsequently developed thyrotoxicosis, pretibial myxedema and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. The pathogenesis of thyrotoxicosis in Graves' disease is due to the presence of autoantibodies that mimic the action of thyrotropin (TSH), called thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TS-ab); these antibodies may or may not inhibit the binding of TSH to the receptor (thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulin, TBII). The patient's immunoglobulins were TS-ab positive and TBII negative when measured on CHO cells expressing the human TSH receptor. The pathogenetic link between the thyroid, orbit and skin is yet to be established but several candidate shared antigens have been proposed, including the TSH receptor itself. The monoclonal immunoglobulins were in evidence before the symptoms of pretibial myxedema, thyrotoxicosis and ophthalmopathy. In addition, the patient had no autoantibodies to thyroglobulin or thyroperoxidase, which are classic markers of thyroid autoimmunity. This combination led us to postulate that the monoclonal gammopathy could be the cause of all the observed pathology. One method to test this hypothesis would be to show that the monoclonal immunoglobulin is a TS-ab. Various methods were used to separate the monoclonal from the polyclonal components of the patient's serum. Preparative isoelectric focusing enabled us to obtain fractions containing only the monoclonal (as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), which were devoid of TS-ab activity (measured as cAMP accumulation in CHO cells expressing the human TSH receptor in a hypotonic bioassay). Subsequently, different oligoclonal fractions were shown to have varying degrees of TS-ab activity, with one fraction having faint biological activity and able to recognize a recombinant TSH receptor preparation in a Western blot. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibody does not seem to be responsible for the thyrotoxicosis, pretibial myxedema and ophthalmopathy. We confirm previous data showing that TSH receptor antibodies in patients with Graves' disease are heterogeneous in nature and we present the first demonstration of autoantibodies capable of binding the TSH receptor but devoid of TBII activity.