Résumé : In a previous study, we have described the induction of thyroid blocking (TBAB) and thyrotropin binding inhibiting antibodies accompanied by thyroiditis in female BALBc mice (H2d) immunised with the extra-cellular domain (ECD) of the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) expressed as a maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion. In the present study we have investigated the response induced in mice of varying MHC haplotype. Two groups of female NOD (H2g), CBA (H2k) and C57 (H2b) mice were immunised intra-peritoneally with MBP-ECD or MBP on days 0 (100 micrograms), 15, 30 and 43 (50 micrograms). Blood samples from individual mice were obtained on days 0, 22, 36 and 50 and assessed for thyroid binding inhibiting immunoglobulins (TBII), thyroid stimulating (TSAB) and TBAB. On day 50 the treated mice and five age/sex matched NOD mice were sacrificed, their thyroids removed, examined histologically and any infiltrate characterised. Induction of antibodies to the ECD was tested by ELISA in which plates had been coated with either MBP-ECD or an ECD-protein A fusion. All of the mice developed a strong antibody response to the relevant immunogen but none of them contained TBII, TSAB or TBAB activities. No lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid glands of the CBA or C57 mice was observed. In contrast, all of the NOD mice displayed severe thyroiditis, whilst one of seven MBP-treated mice had moderate infiltration and none of five untreated controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the infiltrate was predominantly activated T helper cells with little evidence of B cells or the cytokines IL-10 or IL-4, indicating that a Th1 response had been induced, contrary to our findings in BALBc mice which mount a Th2 response. In conclusion we have shown that the type and extent of response induced by immunising with the TSHR varies in mice of differing genetic background. H2d mice develop thyroiditis and TBAB/TBII, H2g mice develop thyroiditis in the absence of functional TSHR antibodies, whilst H2b and H2k mice are resistant.