Résumé : BALB/c (H-2d) mice rendered tolerant to h-2b alloantigens by neonatal injection of semiallogeneic (C57BL/6 X BALB/c)F1 spleen cells develop autoimmune features due to an abnormal activation of persisting F1 donor B cells. The role of T cells in this autoimmune syndrome was studied by in vivo treatment of tolerant mice with anti-L3T4(GK-1.5) or anti-Ly-2 (H-35-17.2) monoclonal antibodies. The treatment of tolerant mice from day 2 to day 21 of life with anti-L3T4 MAb completely prevented the occurrence of circulating immune complexes of anti-ssDNA anti-Sm and anti-hapten (FITC) IgG antibodies as well as the glomerular deposition of Ig that were usually seen in untreated tolerant mice. This effect persisted for at least 6 wk after stopping this treatment. When the injections of anti-L3T4 MAb were delayed until day 15 of life, a very significant decrease of the autoimmune manifestations was still observed. Treatment of tolerant mice with anti-Ly-2 MAb during the same period had no effects on the autoimmune disease as compared with untreated tolerant mice. No effects on the maintenance of tolerance vs H-2b alloantigens were observed after treatment with anti-L3T4 MAb, as followed by the decrease of CTL and CTL-p alloreactivity and by the persistence of F1 donor B cells, indicated by the presence of Ig bearing the Ighb donor allotype. These results suggest the existence of interactions between L3T4+ T cells and persisting autoreactive B cells from F1 donor origin in the development of the autoimmune syndrome after neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance.