Résumé : BACKGROUND: HER-2/neu status was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) methods in more than 300 paraffin-embedded primary breast cancer samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HER-2/neu status was determined by FISH using the PathVysion kit (Vysis) and by IHC using either a monoclonal antibody CB11 or a cocktail of antibodies: the monoclonal TAB250 and the polyclonal pAb1. RESULTS: Of the 324 cases evaluable by IHC, 65 out of 318 (20%) and 24 out of 324 (7%) were scored as positive when using the antibody cocktail and the CB11, respectively. HER-2/neu gene amplification occured in 64 out of 324 cases (20%). Concordance of FISH and IHC was found in 285 out of 318 cases (90%) and 278 out of 324 cases (86%) using the cocktail and the CB11, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cost-effectiveness analysis revealed that the use of a sensitive IHC method followed by confirmation of positive results by FISH considerably decreased the FISH costs and may become standard practice for HER-2/neu evaluation.