Résumé : Extracellular nucleotides are autocrine and paracrine cellular mediators that signal through P2 nucleotide receptors. Monocytic cells express several P2Y receptors but the role of these G protein-coupled receptors in monocytes is not known. Here, we present evidence that P2Y(6) regulates chemokine production and release in monocytes. We find that UDP, a selective P2Y(6) agonist, stimulates interleukin (IL)-8 release in human THP-1 monocytic cells whereas other nucleotides are relatively inactive. P2 receptor antagonists or P2Y(6) antisense oligonucleotides inhibit IL-8 release induced by UDP. Furthermore, UDP specifically activated IL-8 production in astrocytoma 1321N1 cells transfected with human P2Y(6). Since lipopolysaccharide has been suggested to activate P2 receptors via nucleotide release, we tested whether IL-8 production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide might result from P2Y(6) activation. P2 antagonists or apyrase, an enzyme which hydrolyzes nucleotides including UDP, inhibit IL-8 production induced by lipopolysaccharide but not by other stimuli. Furthermore, IL-8 gene expression activated by lipopolysaccharide is enhanced by P2Y(6) overexpression and inhibited by P2Y(6) antisense oligonucleotides. Thus, UDP activates IL-8 production via P2Y(6) in monocytic cells. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide mediates IL-8 production at least in part by autocrine P2Y(6) activation. These findings indicate a novel role for P2Y(6) in innate immune defenses.