Résumé : We previously reported on the partial prevention of experimental shunt-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by the nonselective endothelin (ET) ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist bosentan. As the respective roles of the ET-A and ET-B receptor signaling in the pathobiology of the disease remain undefined, we investigated the effects of selective ET-A receptor blockade by sitaxsentan in the same early stage PAH model. Twenty-one 3-wk-old piglets were randomized to placebo or sitaxsentan therapy (1.5 mg/kg/d), after anastomosis of the left subclavian artery to the pulmonary arterial trunk or after a sham operation. Three months later, the animals underwent a hemodynamic evaluation, followed by pulmonary tissue sampling for morphometry and real-time-quantitative-PCR for ET-1, angiopoietin-1, and bone morphogenetic receptor (BMPR) signaling molecules. Three months of left to right shunting induced an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and medial thickness, an overexpression of ET-1, ET-B receptor, and angiopoietin-1, and a decreased expression of BMPR-2 and BMPR-1A. Pretreatment with sitaxsentan prevented shunt-induced increase in PVR and decreased medial thickness by 64%. Sitaxsentan therapy completely prevented the decreased expression of BMPR-2 and limited the overexpression of ET-1, ET-B and angiopoietin-1, and the decreased expression of BMPR-1A. In conclusion, selective ET-A receptor blockade partially prevents shunt-induced PAH.